Processing operation of the hottest hardcover book

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Hardcover book processing operations

II. Hardcover book block processing

hardcover book block processing refers to the processing after folding, matching and locking, and the process processing of hardcover books, which is mainly divided into three processes: book block, book seal and sleeve. Generally, the book block is processed first, then the book cover is processed, and finally the whole production process of hardcover book is completed

1. process and requirements of book block processing. The processing process of book block mainly includes flattening, the first glue brushing, cutting, rounding, ridging, the second glue brushing, sticking bookmark ribbon and plug cloth, sticking gauze and book back paper, etc

(1) flatten. The process of compacting and leveling the book block that is locked into a volume. After sewing the book block, because the lines float through the seam, the tightness of the lock is inconsistent, and the air between the papers has not been eliminated. The market of PAN based carbon fiber composites is 165.3 billion yen (about 8.6 billion yuan). Ban Xuan is loose and uneven, especially the high convex writing on the back of the book. In order to facilitate the processing and modeling of the next process, the books must be flattened after locking. The function of flattening is to eliminate the air in the book block and reduce the high convex part of the back of the book. Make the book block flat, solid and uniform in thickness, improve the quality of the book block shape, and facilitate the processing of the following processes. The thickness of the book block after flattening should be compatible with the book case

requirements during operation:

① adjust the pressure (high and low) of the press according to the actual thickness and looseness of the pressed book block, and work normally after the pressure test is correct

② the book block should be collided neatly, and there should be no uneven shrinking, skewing and dumping. When flattening, it should be placed flat and upright

③ after flattening, the thickness of each book block should be the same, and it should be placed on the paper table after staggered stacking. The number of each layer should be the same, the four corners should not overflow, each yard should be one layer, and a layer of plates should be pressed (the top layer should also be padded), so as to keep the thickness of the book block basically consistent without deformation

④ when pressing, the pressure should be appropriate, not too large or too small. Too much pressure will affect the back of the book when it is rounded; The pressure is too small to flatten. After rounding and ridging, the roundness of the back of the book increases, which affects the nesting

(2) apply glue for the first time. After the book block is flattened, brush glue on the back of the book to bond the book posts together. Its function is to basically set the book block and prevent the dislocation between the book posts during the subsequent process

the glue used for brushing glue should be thin (those with low viscosity only play a shaping role), and only a thin layer of adhesive or several strips of adhesive should be brushed on the surface of the back of the book at intervals. The degree of glue fixation should prevent the book block from spreading under the pressure of the subsequent ridging process. After brushing the glue, it should be dried to an appropriate degree. Generally, it is appropriate to dry the book block to about 80% when rounding, and excessive drying will affect the rounding work

after flattening, the book block should be painted with glue, some of which should be painted before cutting, and some of which should be cut before rigid glue. These two methods have their own characteristics and can be used. Brushing glue first can make the posts in the book block difficult to move, and then brushing glue is conducive to rounding and shaping

there are two methods of operation:

one is manual glue brushing. When manually brushing glue, dip a brush into the surface of the back of the book and gently (or at intervals) apply a thin layer of thin glue. When the glue on the back of the book is dried to 70% or 80%, the next process can be carried out

the other is machine glue brushing, which is operated by the glue brushing dryer of the hardcover book production line. That is, the flattened book block is shaken up by the straightening roller, and then the book block is clamped by the book clamping plate. Through the transmission, the moving rubber roller and rubber plate apply glue to the surface of the back of the book block, and then dry it

requirements during operation:

① the glue used should be thin (do not use flour paste), and the glue that is too thick has strong viscosity, which affects the accuracy of rounding radian and is not easy to set

② the glue should be thin and uniform, especially the two ends of the book block must be brushed evenly, and there should be no missing book stickers

(3) cutting. The cutting of hardcover books and periodicals is the same as that of general finished books and periodicals, which are usually cut on a three sided book cutting machine. In order to improve work efficiency, thin book blocks are often stacked together for cutting on the book cutting machine. If it is processed by the hardcover production line, the cutting is carried out one by one

(4) rounding. The cut back of the book is made into an arc shape, so that all the book posts and even the pages of the book block are evenly staggered with each other, and the operation process of cutting to form an arc is called raking circle. The function of rounding is to make the books easy to read, and also improve the connection fastness between the book block and the book case. In order to improve the quality of rounding, sometimes the process of "punching round" or "initial rounding" is added before rounding

the circular potential of the back of the book is calculated based on the thickness of the book block. The central angle of the circular arc of the book after rounding should generally be between 120 ° and 140 °

there are manual and machine operations for rounding. There are two ways to manually scrape the circle. One is to scrape the back with a bamboo board to deform the book block, and the other is to beat the back with a wooden hammer to make it shape. Machine rounding is carried out in the rounding and ridging machine of the hardbound production line

the method of scraping the back with a bamboo board is to pick up a book block, with the back facing outward, the front mouth facing inward (leaning against the body), and extend the thumbs of both hands into the book block at half or two-thirds of its thickness. The other four fingers are pressed on the surface of the book block, the thumb is against the book block, and the four fingers move gently in to gradually open a certain distance (trace) from the outermost page of the book block to the middle part of the thickness of the book block. At this time, the front incision edge of the book block presents an arc. Then press the flat surface of the book block with one hand, and press the back of the book with a bamboo board with the other hand to scrape back and forth, so that the back of the book becomes a circular arc. Then hold the book block, turn over and scrape the other side in the same way until the back of the book block becomes a symmetrical round back

the method of knocking the back with a wooden hammer is as follows: put a book block after cutting and brushing glue, with the back facing inward (leaning against the side of the body), the front mouth facing outward (opposite to the previous placement method), extend four fingers of the left hand (except the thumb) into the book block (front mouth), and the position is about half or two-thirds of the thickness of the book block, and press the thumb on the surface of the book block; The upper and lower fingers cooperate with each other to hold the upper half of the book block, and move the front part gently or push and pull with both hands (the position of the book block cannot be moved); After the upper half of the book block is gently pulled into a certain circular potential, one hand presses accura HPC to provide us with reliable results in terms of Aerodynamic testing. The circular potential of the book block pulled out, and the other hand uses a wooden hammer to knock the part pushed out along the back of the book for several times, which is more convenient to operate (generally 3 ~ 5 times); Then hold the book block and turn over, and beat the other half in the same way until the roundness of the back of the book block meets the requirements

grasp the book block after the circle, and the back and front opening of the book should be stacked horizontally and staggered (not too high to avoid collapse). When the books are stacked cross, the top of each stack should be pressed with iron blocks and other things to avoid the disappearance of the circle or tend to disappear and return to the original image

requirements during operation:

① the roundness of rounding should be determined according to the thickness and format of the book. Generally, if the book is thin, the roundness should be larger, and if the book is thick, the roundness should be smaller

② the roundness of the book block after rounding shall always be the same. One end shall not be larger than the other end, and it shall not be skewed. The upper and lower corners of the incision edge shall be vertical

③ when finding glue leakage at both ends during rounding, glue should be supplemented immediately to prevent tearing at both ends of the back when ridging

(5) ridging. Also known as hitting the ridge or knocking the ridge. In order to prevent the back round deformation of the book block that has been scratched, and to ensure the neat and beautiful appearance of the book after installing the hard case. That is, the book block rubs the rounded spine under great pressure, and makes a groove formed by bulge at the connection between the back of the book and the surface of the book. The spine of the book is like the ear of the book, so it is also called the ear of the book. The ridging height is generally the same as the thickness of the case paper. Ridging is a key process in the binding of hardcover books, which has a great impact on the durability of books

ridging can be operated manually or by machine. Machine ridging is carried out in the rounding ridging machine of the hardbound production line

the tools for manual ridging include a wedge-shaped splint ridging frame and a hammer used to smash the ridge. There are two kinds of hammers, wood and iron. During operation, place the back of the book block after rounding up smoothly in the splint of the spine, and gently clamp the book block with a rotary wrench, so that the back line of the spine is parallel to the edge line of the splint. The spine part is exposed outside the splint for about 3mm, which is slightly larger than the thickness of the cover cardboard, because the height of the spine should be equivalent to the sum of the three thicknesses of the cover, the glue layer and the cardboard (that is, the spine = cover + glue layer + cardboard). After selecting the position as required, turn the wrench to clamp and position the book block, and then knock or smash the spine

when smashing the spine, take a hammer, and first focus on the middle of the back of the book. The force should be appropriate, light first and then heavy, both hard and soft. The force direction of the back of the book is inclined to both sides. When knocking, do not hit it vertically and forcefully in the front (especially on both sides of the book entry). You should exert unilateral force to force the back book post to bend to both sides and knock it to the required degree. After ridging, take out the book block from the splint frame and put it on the book pad (Fig. 3-40a, b), expose the protruding book spine outside the pad, and stack it into a stack at the wrong intersection

operation requirements:

① when clamping and positioning the book block, it should be flat, the four corners should be vertical without skewing, and the exposed part of the back of the book should be parallel and consistent

② the spine should be lifted with proper force, and it is not allowed to crack or wrinkle. The back of the smashed book should be strong, straight and maintain the correct roundness

③ the height of the spine should be consistent, generally 3mm, and the included angle between the protruding part of the spine and the writing is generally maintained at about 60 °

④ the book blocks after ridging should be stacked neatly at the wrong intersection, and each stack should be padded to prevent the spine from deformation (Fig. 3-40c, d)

(6) apply glue for the second time. The second glue brushing of hardcover book block processing refers to brushing a layer of adhesive on both ends of the back of the book block after ridging, which is used for pasting plug cloth and bookmark tape. Therefore, only brush the upper and lower ends of the back of the book, and the width of the glue is slightly wider than the plug cloth

the manual operation of the second glue brushing is to first cross and stagger the ridged book block, the back and the front opening, stack them neatly, and expose the back of the book on both sides, and then brush the glue. When brushing glue, push the brush from the middle of the book block to both ends, and do not brush back and forth, so as to avoid the glue scraping on the upper and lower cuts, making the pages stick or tear the pages, etc. The second machine operation of glue brushing is to stick gauze first and then plug cloth

requirements during operation:

① the glue brush should not dip too much glue to prevent glue from overflowing onto the incision

② the glue shall be applied evenly (with thick glue), and the glue layer shall be thin without flower, and thick without accumulation

(7) stick bookmark tape and plug cloth. Stick the bookmark tape and plug cloth immediately after brushing. The bookmark belt is generally made of silk, and its length is based on the length of the diagonal of the book. It is glued into the upper end of the back of the book about 10mm, clamped in the middle of the page, and the length of the book block exposed below is 10 ~ 20mm (Fig. 3-41a)

stick the plug cloth immediately after pasting the bookmark tape. The plug cloth is pasted on both ends of the spine of the book to make the book stick more firmly connected and play a decorative role. The width of the plug cloth is about 10 ~ 15mm, and the length is the same as the arc size of the back of the book

when manually gluing the plug cloth, press the stack of book blocks to be glued with one hand, pick up the plug cloth with the other hand, pinch the line edge of the plug cloth with your thumb and stick it on the upper and lower sides of the back of the book

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